Summary of automobile parts processing technology
An automobile is composed of many parts. Each part plays a different role. It also needs to be processed through different processing processes before it can be installed on the automobile for use. What are the processing processes of automobile parts?
1、 Forging of automobile parts
Forging is widely used in automobile manufacturing. Forging methods are divided into free forging and model forging. Free forging is a processing method in which a metal blank is formed by putting it on an anvil under impact or pressure (it is called "forging" in the market). The blanks of automobile gears and shafts are processed by free forging.
2、 Automobile parts casting
Casting is a production method in which molten metal is poured into the mold cavity, cooled and solidified to obtain products. In the process of automobile parts processing and manufacturing, there are many parts made of cast iron, accounting for about 10% of the weight of the whole vehicle, such as cylinder block, transmission box, steering gear housing, rear axle housing, brake drum, various supports, etc.
Sand mold is usually used to manufacture iron castings. The raw material of sand mold is mainly sand, which is mixed with binder and water. The sand mold material must have a certain bonding strength so that it can be molded into the required shape and resist the scouring of high-temperature molten iron without collapse. In order to form a cavity in the sand mold consistent with the shape of the casting, a model must be made of wood, which is called wood model. After the hot molten iron is cooled, the volume will be reduced. Therefore, the size of the wooden mold needs to be increased according to the shrinkage rate on the basis of the original size of the casting, and the surface to be machined needs to be thickened accordingly.
3、 Welding processing of automobile parts
Welding is a processing method of joining two pieces of metal by local heating or simultaneous heating and pressurization. We often see workers holding masks in one hand and welding tongs and electrodes connected with wires in the other hand. The welding method is called manual arc welding, which uses the high temperature generated by arc discharge to melt the electrodes and weldments and make them join.
Manual arc welding is not widely used in automobile manufacturing. Spot welding is widely used in automobile body manufacturing. Spot welding is suitable for welding thin steel plates. During operation, two electrodes apply pressure to the two steel plates to make them stick and merge. At the same time, the bonding point (a circle with a diameter of 5-6 μ) is heated and melted by current, so as to firmly connect. When two body parts are welded, a point is welded at the edge every 50-100 ° to form a discontinuous multi-point connection between the two parts. Welding the whole car body usually requires thousands of welding points. The strength requirements of the solder joint are very high. Each solder joint can withstand 5kn tensile force, even tear the steel plate, but still can not separate the solder joint.
4、 Cold stamping of automobile parts
Cold stamping or sheet metal stamping is a processing method in which sheet metal is cut or formed under pressure in the die. Daily necessities, such as aluminum pot, lunch box and washbasin, are made by cold stamping. For example, to make a lunch box, you first need to cut out a rectangular blank with four rounded corners (known as "blanking" in the industry), and then press the blank into the female die with a punch (known as "drawing" in the industry). In the drawing process, the flat sheet becomes box shaped, its four sides are bent vertically upward, and the materials at the four corners are stacked and wrinkles can be seen.
5、 Automobile parts cutting
Auto parts machining is to cut metal blanks layer by layer with cutting tools; A machining method that enables the workpiece to obtain the required shape, size and surface roughness. Metal cutting includes fitter and machining. Fitter is a machining method for workers to cut with hand tools. It is flexible and convenient to operate and is widely used in assembly and repair. Machining is accomplished by means of machine tools, including turning, planing, milling, drilling and grinding.
6、 Heat treatment processing of automobile parts
Heat treatment is a method of reheating, heat preservation or cooling solid steel to change its organizational structure to meet the service requirements or process requirements of parts. The heating temperature, holding time and cooling speed can make steel produce different structural changes. The blacksmith immerses the heated steel parts in water for rapid cooling, which can improve the hardness of the steel parts.
Keyword: auto parts processing
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